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Flute Materials in the Riemenschneider Bach Institute

Brown, Rachel. The Early Flute: A Practical Guide. Cambridge Handbooks to the Historical Performance of Music. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press, 2002. ML937 .B76 2002. Circulating.

Full Title Page

The Early Flute / A Practical Guide / Rachel Brown / Cambridge University Press

Abstract

Item's contents are divided into five chapters: 1) "Historical sources", 2) "The development of the flute, 1700-1900", 3) "Technique", 4) "Style", and 5) "Case Studies".

The first chapter, "Historical sources", introduces numerous different types of historical sources that may be utilized by historical flute performers and researchers. The chapter is divided into two subsections: i) Treatises and tutors and ii) Secondary sources.

The second chapter, "The development of the flute, 1700-1900", provides a "musical perspective on the historical development of the flute, and an indication of the type of instrument appropriate for any given repertoire" (Brown, 14). The chapter is divided into X subsections, the first seven of which cover different types of flute: i) "One-keyed flutes", ii) "Simple-system flutes", iii) "Boehm's 1832 model", iv) "Boehm's 1847 model", v) "German Reform flutes", vi) "Small and large flutes", and vii) "Alto flute". The eighth subsection of the chapter, "Acquiring period instruments", provides information on the different options for obtaining either an original period instrument or a modern version of a period instrument. The ninth and final subsection of the chapter, "Instrument care" provides instructions for caring for such an instrument.

The third chapter, "Technique", has basic instructions for playing different types of historical flutes. The chapter is divided into nine subsections, each of which covers a different aspect of flute playing technique: i) "Posture", ii) "Fingering", iii) "Sound", iv) "Embouchure", v) "Blowing", vi) "Articulation", vii) "Double tonguing", viii) "Triple Tonguing", and ix) "Slurs".

The fourth chapter, "Style", focuses on how flute pieces from different eras should be interpreted by historical performers. The chapter is divided into 28 subsections: i) "Performance", ii) "Phrasing", iii) "Stress", iv) "Gestures", v) "Tempo", vi) "Rhythmic alteration", vii) "Inequality (Notes inégales)", viii) "Alignment", ix) "Over-dotting", x) "Contracted upbeats", xi) "Ornaments", xii) "Grace notes", xiii) "Ports de voix", xiv) "Battements", xv) "Appoggiaturas", xvi) "Slides", xvii) "Accents, chûtes and tours dechant", xviii) "Trills", xix) "Turns", xx) "Free ornamentation", xxi) "Fermata embellishments", xxii) "Eingänge", xxiii) "Cadenzas", xxiv) "Vibrato", xxv) "Fingerings for flattement", xxvi) "Chest Vibrato", xxvii) "Notes sensibles", and xxviii) "Gliding (glissando)".

In the fifth and final chapter, "Case Studies", Brown looks at specific historical flute pieces and provides insights into how to interpret the work and evaluate its different editions. The works covered in this chapter are Jacques-Martin Hotteterre's Suite in E minor, Premier Livre (op. 2 no. 4), George Frideric Handel's Sonata in A minor (op. 1 no. 4), Johann Sebastian Bach's Sonata in E minor (BWV 1034), Christoph Willibald Gluck's Dance of the Blessed Spirits from Orphée, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart's Andante in C major (K. 315), and Theobald Boehm's Fantasie on an Air of Schubert (op. 21).

The item ends with two appendices - "Flute treatises and tutors in chronological order" and "Fingering charts" - followed by notes, a select bibliography, and an index.

Unique Markings

RBI Ex Libris Plate reads "Ex Libris Albert Riemenschneider"

Pencil markings on upper inside cover read "R 4791" and "$58.00"

Stamp on inside cover and title page reads "Riemenschneider Bach Institute"

Pencil markings on upper title page read "R 4791" and "ML 937 .B76"

Stamp on title page reads "Nov 14 2003"

Pencil marking on lower title page under "Cambridge University Press" reads "2002"

Reviews

Bragg, Zöe. Review of The Early Flute: A Practical Guide, by Rachel Brown. Consort 61 (Summer 2005): 94–95.

Dreese, Mia. Review of The Early Flute: A Practical Guide, by Rachel Brown. Fluit 11, no. 4 (September 2003): 45.

Gabriel, Sean. Review of The Early Flute: A Practical Guide, by Rachel Brown. Bach 41, no. 1 (July 2010): 101–102.

Hadden, Nancy. Review of The Early Flute: A Practical Guide, by Rachel Brown. Early Music Performer, no. 13 (January 2004): 20–22.

Mezger, Marianne. Review of The Early Flute: A Practical Guide, by Rachel Brown. The Recorder Magazine 23, no. 3 (September 2003): 90.

Powell, Ardal. Review of The Early Flute: A Practical Guide, by Rachel Brown. Traverso 15, no. 2 (April 2003): 5–7.

Rolfe, Wendy. Review of The Early Flute: A Practical Guide, by Rachel Brown. Early Music America 10, no. 2 (June 2004): 48–49.

Brown, Rachel (n.d.-)

Biography

Rachel Brown was born in London, England and began studying flute and recorder around age 10. Brown studied both instruments at the Royal College of Music junior department and later at the Royal Northern College of Music. While at those institutions, she studied recorder with Ross Winters and flute with Joan Hale and Trevor Wye. She also began studying the baroque flute in college with Lisa Beznosiuk. Following her college graduation, Brown toured with the Academy of Ancient Music and performed around London with a variety of ensembles. In 2000, Brown founded the London Handel Players, a baroque chamber ensemble, in which she currently plays flute and recorder. Brown also teaches historical flute at the Royal College of London and runs Uppernote, her own recording label and publishing company. Brown is married to Adrian Butterfield, a Baroque violinist who also plays with the London Handel Players.

Additional Flute-Related Writings

  • Cadenzas for Mozart's Concerto for Flute and Orchestra G Major (2003)
  • Quantz Flute Sonatas Vol. 1 (2010)
  • Quantz Flute Sonatas Vol. 2 (2010)
  • J.S. Bach Sonata in A major (2017)

Further Reading

Academy of Ancient Music. “Rachel Brown.” https://aam.co.uk/rachel-brown/.

Brodersen, Christopher. “An Interview with Violinist Adrian Butterfield and Flutist Rachel Brown.” Fanfare: The Magazine for Serious Record Collectors 35, no. 3 (February 1, 2012): 203–14.

London Hanel Players. “About.” https://www.londonhandelplayers.co.uk/.

Miller, Sandra. “Rachel Brown: Lively Scholarship, Informed Virtuosity.” The New York Flute Club Newsletter, January 2010, 1, 4.

Rachel Brown Flutes & Recorders. “About.” https://www.rachelbrownflute.com/.

Rees, Carla. “Rachel Brown.” Pan: The Flute Magazine 27, no. 2 (June 2008): 13–13.

Royal College of Music London. “Rachel Brown.” https://www.rcm.ac.uk/hp/professors/details/index.aspx?id=01775.

“Where Are They Now?: Rachel Brown” Flutist Quarterly 37, no. 3 (Spring 2012): 77.

Wilson, Frances. “Rachel Brown, Flautist.” Meet the Artist, March 7, 2020. https://meettheartist.online/2020/03/07/rachel-brown-flautist/.

Carroll, Paul. Baroque Woodwind Instruments: A Guide to Their History, Repertoire, and Basic Technique. Aldershot, Hants, England; Brookfield, Vt., USA: Ashgate, 1999. ML931 .C37 1999. Internal Use Only.

Full Title Page

Baroque Woodwind Instruments / A Guide to their History, Repertoire and Basic Technique / Paul Carroll / Ashgate / Aldershot • Brookfield USA • Singapore • Sydney

Abstract

Text begins with an introduction and contains four chapters, each focusing on the Baroque-era form of a different woodwind instrument: 1) The bassoon, 2) The flute, 3) The oboe, 4) The recorder. Each chapter contains a list of repertoire, recommended readings, and recommended music for beginners on each instrument as well as information on the repertoire, purchasing, and playing of each instrument. Contains three appendices: 1) "The chalumeau and baroque clarinet", 2) "The preparation of performing material from original sources - an introduction", and 3) "Fingering charts". Concludes with a bibliography, directory of makers/shops, and index.

Unique Markings

RBI Ex Libris Plate reads "Ex Libris Albert Riemenschneider"

Pencil marking on upper inside cover reads "R 4700" and "$58.00"

Stamp on inside cover and title page reads "Riemenschneider Bach Institute"

Pencil markings on upper title page read "R 4700" and "ML 931 .C37"

Stamp on title page reads "Jun 19 2001"

Pencil marking on lower title page under "Ashgate / Aldershot • Brookfield USA • Singapore • Sydney" reads "1999"

Reviews

Higbee, Dale. Review of Baroque Woodwind Instruments: A Guide to Their History, Repertoire, and Basic Technique, by Paul Carroll. Newsletter of the American Musical Instrument Society 29, no. 1 (January 2000): 13–14.

Lasocki, David. Review of Baroque Woodwind Instruments: A Guide to Their History, Repertoire, and Basic Technique, by Paul Carroll. Notes: Quarterly Journal of the Music Library Association 57, no. 2 (December 2000): 386–88.

Moeck, Hermann. Review of Baroque Woodwind Instruments: A Guide to Their History, Repertoire, and Basic Technique, by Paul Carroll. Tibia: Magazin Für Holzbläser 28, no. 3 (2003): 525.

Savage, Colin. Review of Baroque Woodwind Instruments: A Guide to Their History, Repertoire, and Basic Technique, by Paul Carroll. The American Recorder 41, no. 4 (September 2000): 21–23.

Carroll, Paul (1955-)

Biography

Paul Carroll was born in 1955 in London, England. As a teenager, Carroll attended the Newham Academy of Music and played bassoon in the Newham Academy Youth Orchestra. He then attended the Royal College of Music where he studied composition with Phillip Cannon and bassoon with Geoff Gambold. Carroll served as Professor of Baroque and Classical Bassoon at the Royal College of Music from 1985-2010. After leaving the Royal College of Music, Carroll focused his career on composition. From 2008-2018 he served as the Composer-in-Residence for Commonwealth Music Distance Learning and, in 2012, he was appointed Composer-in-Residence for the Commonwealth Children Orchestra and Choir. Today, Carroll is regularly commissioned to write and arrange marches for the British Military's Household Division Bands.

Further Reading

Carroll, Paul. Interview. Interview by Stuart Marsh, August 2020. https://www.paulcarrollcomposer.com/interview.

Kvist, Else. “Queen’s Composer to Teach Music to Newham Youngsters.” Newham Recorder, October 28, 2012. https://www.newhamrecorder.co.uk/news/education/queen-s-composer-to-teach-music-to-newham-youngsters-2934930.

Mather, Betty Bang. Interpretation of French Music from 1675-1775 for Woodwind and Other Performers: Additional Comments on German and Italian Music. The McGinnis & Marx Monographs on Musical Subjects, 2. New York: McGinnis & Marx Music Publishers, 1973. MT80 .M35. Circulating.

Full Title Page

Interpretation of French Music from 1675 to 1775 / For Woodwind and Other Performers / Additional Comments on German and Italian Music / by Betty Band Mather / McGinnis & Marx Music Publishers / 201 West 86 Street New York 10024 / 1973

Abstract

Text begins with biographical information on Betty Band Mather before starting main contents. Contents are divided into two parts: titled "Rhythmic Inequality" and "Articulation", respectively. Both sections include written instruction and musical examples pulled from pieces written between 1675 - 1775. Also includes two appendices titled "Italian Terms as Defined in 18th-Century French and German Dictionaries and Method Books" and "Some Recommended Modern Editions of 18th-Century French Flute Duets", respectively, followed by a bibliography.

Unique Markings

RBI Ex Libris Plate reads “Ex Libris Albert Riemenschneider”

Stamp on lower left corner of title page reads “ ’79”

Stamp across exterior of pages reads “Baldwin-Wallace College Riemenschneider Bach Library”

Reviews

Higbee, Dale. Review of Interpretation of French Music from 1675-1775 for Woodwind and Other Performers: Additional Comments on German and Italian Music, by Betty Bang Mather. The American Recorder 15, no. 2 (May 1974): 59–60.

Hunt, Edgar. Review of Interpretation of French Music from 1675-1775 for Woodwind and Other Performers: Additional Comments on German and Italian Music, by Betty Bang Mather. Recorder & Music 5, no. 1 (March 1975): 22–22.

Mather, Betty Bang (1927-)

Biography

Betty Bang Mather was born in Emporia, Kansas on August 7, 1927. Her father was an amateur flutist and began teaching Mather the flute at a young age. In high school her family moved to Chicago she began taking lessons with the principal flutist of the Chicago Women's Symphony who assisted Mather with correcting some bad embouchure habits she'd developed under her father's tutelage. Mather's family moved to South Orange, New Jersey towards the end of her time in high school where she played second flute in the New York All-City Orchestra and studied with Henry Zlotnik.

Mather attended Hunter College for a year before transferring to Oberlin College in 1946 and studying flute at the Oberlin Conservatory with Harry Peters. During this time, she also frequently played with the Juilliard Summer Scholarship Orchestra. Mather received her Bachelor of Music from Oberlin in 1949 and her MA from Columbia Teacher's College in 1951. In 1952, Mather began teaching at the University of Iowa, where she remained until 1996. During her career, she has presented lectures, seminars, and workshops around the globe and has written numerous books on baroque-era flute playing. She has also been a part of the National Flute Association from their first convention in 1973 and served as the organization's first female president. Mather was awarded the National Flute Association's Lifetime Achievement Award in 2012.

Additional Flute-Related Writings

  • Free Ornamentation in Woodwind Music, 1700-1775 (1976)
  • The Classical Woodwind Cadenza: A Workbook (1978)
  • The French Noel (1996)

Additional Compositions Featuring the Flute

  • 30 Virtuosic Selections in the Gallant Style for Unaccompanied Flute (1975)

Further Reading

Barclay, Winston. “Baroque for Betty Honors Mather April 14.” Iowa Now, April 10, 2012. https://now.uiowa.edu/2012/04/baroque-betty-honors-mather-april-14.

Boland, Jan. “Twists & Turns.” Flutist Quarterly 45, no. 5 (Fall 2020): 32–36.

David M. Cummings, ed. International Who’s Who in Music and Musicians’ Directory (In the Classical and Light Classical Fields). 13th ed. (Cambridge, England: International Who’s Who in Music, 1992), 743. http://archive.org/details/internationalwho0013unse.

Garrison, Leonard. “Informed Performer: Betty Bang Mather.” The Flutist Quarterly 37, no. 2 (January 2012): 96–98.

Pereksta, Linda. “An Interview with Betty Bang Mather.” Traverso 23, no. 3 (2011): 9–12.

Press, Jaques Cattell, ed. Who’s Who in American Music: Classical. 1st ed. (New York: R.R. Bowker, 1983), 290. http://archive.org/details/whoswhoinamerica0000unse_q2u6.

The National Flute Association. “Betty Bang Mather: NFA Lifetime Achievement Award,” 2012. https://www.nfaonline.org/about/achievement-awards/betty-bang-mather.

Riemenschneider, Albert. Some Aspects of the Use of the Flutes in the Sacred Choral and Vocal Works of Johann Sebastian Bach. Washington, D.C: Music Division, Dayton C. Miller Fund, Library of Congress, 1950. ML410. B13 R47. Circulating.

Full Title Page

The Use of the Flutes in the Works of J.S. Bach / By Albert Riemenschneider / Music Division / The Dayton C. Miller Fund / The Library of Congress / Washington D.C. / 1950

Abstract

Contains the essay "The Use of the Flutes in the Works of J.S. Bach" which was written by Albert Riemenschneider and intended to be presented at the Library of Congress in the summer of 1950. Riemenschneider died on July 20, 1950, shortly before the presentation was to be given, and, as such, the Library of Congress opted to publish the essay as a booklet instead.

Riemenschneider's essay evaluates how Bach utilized both the recorder and transverse flute in his sacred and choral works. The essay begins by exploring the wider social and musical context Bach lived and worked in at the time and how those contexts informed his composition and instrumentation practices (pg.1-10). The essay then shifts to focus on introducing the two instruments evaluated in the essay: the Blockflöte (or recorder) and the transverse flute (pg. 10-11). Riemenschneider focuses on the Blockflöte first, specifically analyzing how the instrument was used in Bach's Cantatas and his St. Matthew's Passion (pg. 11-18)The remainder of the essay (pg. 18-23) looks at the use of the transverse flute in his Cantatas (written after 1723), Passions, and Magnificat in D.

Unique Markings

Note: The Riemenschneider Bach Institue has three circulating copies of Some Aspects of the Use of the Flutes in the Sacred Choral and Vocal Works of Johann Sebastian Bach. They are referred to below as "Copy 0", "Copy 1", and "Copy 2" based on their call numbers.

Copy 0 (ML410. B13 R47)

RBI Ex Libris Plate reads “Ex Libris Albert Riemenschneider”

Copy 1 (ML410. B13 R47 c.1)

RBI Ex Libris Plate reads “Ex Libris Gift of: George Poinar”

Pencil signature on upper portion of cover reads "G. Poinar"

Pencil marking on upper portion of cover reads "misc. 426"

Pencil markings on upper title page read "ML410 .B13 R47" and "misc. 426"

Pencil underlines and brackets throughout main contents

Copy 2 (ML410. B13 R47 c.2)

RBI Ex Libris Plate reads “Ex Libris Gift of: Ferne Patterson Jones Music Library” and has "misc. 99" marked on bottom in pencil

Pencil markings on inside cover read "copy 2", "ML 410 .B13 R47", and "misc. 99" 

Stamp on lower inside cover reads "7 9"

Crossed out stamp on lower title page reads "Property of Ferne Patterson Jones Music Library Berea, Ohio 44017"

Stamp on last page (pg. 23) reads "Property of Ferne Patterson Jones Music Library Berea, Ohio 44017"​​​​​​

Riemenschneider, Albert (1878-1950)

Biography

Albert Riemenschneider was born in Berea, Ohio on August 31, 1878. His father, Dr. Karl Riemenschneider was a Professor of Ancient Languages when Albert was born. In 1893, Karl Riemenschneider became the president of German Wallace College and, in 1898, at the insistence of the German Wallace College Board of Trustees, Albert was appointed to be the head of the music department - even though he was only a junior at German Wallace. In 1904, Albert Riemenschneider married Selma Marting, the daughter of the German Wallace College Treasurer and one of Riemenschneider's music students and longtime friends.

In 1912, Riemenschneider oversaw the creation of the German Wallace College's Conservatory of Music (later the Baldwin-Wallace Conservatory of Music) after the Berea community donated land to expand the College's music facilities. Around this time, Riemenschneider began traveling abroad more frequently, studying with numerous famous organists including Charles Marie Widor and collecting rare Bach manuscripts and other rare materials. Riemenschneider's interest in Bach led him to establish the Baldwin-Wallace Bach Festival in 1933 - an annual two-day festival that, among other Bach works and related programming, presents Bach's large-scale choral works (St. John's Passion, St. Matthew Passion, B-Minor Mass, Christmas Oratorio) on a four-year cycle. 

Riemenschneider became one of the world's leading Bach scholars of his time - publishing numerous scholarly works on Bach throughout his lifetime. He died at the Akron City Hospital in Akron, Ohio on July 20, 1950. At the time of his death, had developed a massive Bach library valued at $83,000 at the time. While the Library of Congress offered to take the collection, Riemenschneider ultimately left the collection to Baldwin-Wallace University, where it has since expanded to become the Riemenschneider Bach Institute. Following his death, his wife Selma Riemenschneider continued to manage the Baldwin Wallace Bach Festival and Riemenschneider's collection of Bach materials for many years.

Further Reading

Baldwin-Wallace Conservatory of Music. “A few words about our history...” https://web.archive.org/web/20120222081106/http://www.bw.edu/academics/conservatory/about/history/.

Barber, Elinore. “Albert Riemenschneider: A Portrait of the Founder of Baldwin-Wallace College’s Conservatory, on the Occasion of Its 100th Anniversary.” Bach 29, no. 2 (September 1998): 1–7.

Case Western Reserve University. “RIEMENSCHNEIDER, ALBERT.” Encyclopedia of Cleveland History, May 11, 2018. https://case.edu/ech/articles/r/riemenschneider-albert.

Swendseid, Margaret. “The 2009 Baldwin-Wallace Bach Festival.” MusicalAmerica Worldwide, March 18, 2009. https://www.musicalamerica.com/news/newsstory.cfm?archived=0&storyID=20101&categoryID=5.

Each listing is separated into two sections - information about the item and information about the item's author. 

The item listings on this page contain the following fields, some of which may be excluded if they are not applicable to a particular item:

  • Full Title Page: a transcription of the full title page with “/” denoting page breaks
  • Abstract: a brief description of the item and its contents
  • Unique Markings: a list of unique markings (pencil markings, stamps, ex libris plates, etc.) found in the item
  • Reviews: reviews of the item from external scholarly sources

The author listings on this page contain the following fields, some of which may be excluded if they are not applicable to a particular author: 

  • Biography: a brief biography detailing the author’s life and other works
  • Additional Flute-Related Writings: a list of writings by the author that focus on the flute
  • Additional Compositions Featuring the Flute: a list of compositions by the author that feature the flute in some way. Include the instrumentation and year of composition in paratheses after each listing 
  • Further Readings: sources utilized in the author’s listing that may be of interest to researchers