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Citation Styles for Music: Sound Recordings

Style examples of bibliographic citations in music for APA, MLA & Chicago Manuals of Style.

APA Style Manual

Sound Recordings

Entire recording Writer, A. (Year of publication). Title of album [Medium of recording: CD, record, cassette, DVD, MP3, etc.]. Location: Label.

Stravinsky, I. (1992). L'oiseau de feu: Apollon musagète [CD]. New York: London Records.
Part of recording Writer, A. (Year of publication). Title of song [Recorded by B. B. Artist]. On Title of album [Medium of recording]. Location: Label. (Date of recording)

Stravinsky, I. (1999). Firebird ballet suite (1945) revised version. [Recorded by Columbia Symphony Orchestra]. On Stravinsky conducts Stravinsky [CD]. New York: Sony Classical. (Originally released by Columbia between 1962 and 1971.)
MP3 download Writer, A. (Year of publication). Title of album [MP3]. Location: Label.

Stravinsky, I. (1967). Firebird Suite (1945). [MP3]. New York: Columbia.
Streaming audio service Writer, A. (Year of publication). Title of song [Recorded by B. B. Artist]. On Title of album [Medium of recording]. Location: Label. (Date of recording).  Retrieved from Static URL if provided or URL of website.

Stravinsky, I. (1998). Firebird (original version) [Recorded by City of Birmingham Symphony]. On Sacre du printemps (Le) / Petrushka / The Firebird / Apollo (1947 revision) [Streaming audio]. London: EMI Classics. (Recorded in October, 1987). Retrieved from http://bwcoll.naxosmusiclibrary.com/streamw.asp?ver=2.0&s=76779%2Fohiolinkbwc07%2F1535230
YouTube website clip

Author, A .A. (Year, Month Day). Title of video [Video]. Retrieved from http://xxx.xxx.xxx.  (If author of video is unknown, begin with the title)

Igor Stravinsky conducts The Firebird [Video].  Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mUwdyN27TWI

Liner Notes

LinerNotesAuthor (Year of publication) [Liner Notes]. Title of song [Recorded by B.B. Artists]. Title of album [Medium of recording: CD, record, cassette, DVD, MP3, etc.]. Location: Label.

Stravinsky, I. (1964). [Liner Notes]. The Firebird [Recorded by Columbia Symphony Orchestra].  Three favorite ballets. [LP]. New York: Columbia.

In-text citations

The following table may be used as a guide for common in-text citations.  

Type of citation What is in-text
The entire work (Joseph, 2001)
A specific page (Joseph, 2001, p. 33)
Author's name included in text "Joseph (2001, p. 33) states that.."
An online article with no page numbers (Bob, 2010, para. 6)
Citing multiple authors See resources below

The following resources provide additional information regarding citing multiple authors and other unique situations: