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Citation Styles for Music

APA Style Manual

Bibliography (Works cited)

Dissertation/Thesis: In print AuthorLastname, F. N. (Year). Dissertation title. (Type of Dissertation). School: Location.

Norvell, L. L. (1989). Symphony in E-flat, opus 1 by Igor Stravinsky (Doctoral dissertation). Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ.
Dissertaton/Thesis: From Database AuthorLastname, F. N. (Year). Dissertation title. (Type of Dissertation). Available from Name of Database. (accession or order number)

Steshko, J. L. (2000). Stravinsky's "Firebird": genesis, sources, and the centrality of the 1919 suite. (Doctoral dissertation). Available from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses A&I (Document ID. 9976242)
Dissertation/Thesis: Online AuthorLastname, F. N. (Year). Dissertation title. (Type of Dissertation).Retrieved from http://www.xxxxxxxx

Davis, C. M. (2007). Effects of early and late rest intervals on performance and consolidation of a keyboard sequence (Doctoral Dissertation). Retrieved from

In-text citations

The following table may be used as a guide for common in-text citations.  

Type of citation What is in-text
The entire work (Joseph, 2001)
A specific page (Joseph, 2001, p. 33)
Author's name included in text "Joseph (2001, p. 33) states that.."
An online article with no page numbers (Bob, 2010, para. 6)
Citing multiple authors See resources below

The following resources provide additional information regarding citing multiple authors and other unique situations:

What is a DOI?

Some library databases, such as the Electronic Journal Center, list a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) for individual articles. A DOI is a unique identifying number for an article. In the database record for an article, you will see an element that looks like this, which you should include at the end of your APA reference, preceded by "":

Other databases include what might be called a static or stable URL.  You may use this URL if the DOI is not provided.    If neither a DOI or a stable URL are provided, provide the URL for  journal's home page or the database that provided the full-text (e.g.