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Citation Styles for Music

Video Recordings (commercial & online)

Video Recording Producer ,P.P. (Producer), & Director,D.D.(Director). (Year).Title[Medium–DVD,motion picture, etc.]. Country of Origin: Studio

Chadwick, H. & Knussen, S. (Producers) & West, P. (Director). (2005). Leaving home: orchestral music in the 20th century. [DVD]. Leipzig: Arthaus Musik.
Video (online) (e.g. YouTube) Author, A .A. (Year, Month Day). Title of video [Video]. Retrieved from  (If author of video is unknown, begin with the title)

Huckleberry, A. (2011 October 11). Robert Schumann, Hymn [Video]. Retrieved from

In-text citations

The following table may be used as a guide for common in-text citations.  

Type of citation What is in-text
The entire work (Joseph, 2001)
A specific page (Joseph, 2001, p. 33)
Author's name included in text "Joseph (2001, p. 33) states that.."
An online article with no page numbers (Bob, 2010, para. 6)
Citing multiple authors See resources below

The following resources provide additional information regarding citing multiple authors and other unique situations:

APA Style Manual