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Citation Styles for Music

Bibliography (Works Cited)

Entire Book: Print version AuthorLastname, F. N. (Year). Book title. Location: Publisher.

Joseph, C. M. (2001). Stravinsky inside out. New Haven; Yale University Press.
Entire Book: Edited EditorLastname, F. N. (Eds.). (Year). Book title. Location: Publisher.

Haimo, E. & Johnson, P. (Eds.). (1987). Stravinsky retrospectives. Lincoln, NE: Univ. of Nebraska Press.
Entire Book: Electronic Version AuthorLastname, F. N. (Year). Book title. Retrieved from http://www.xxxxxxxx

Horlacher, G. G. (2011). Building blocks: repetition and continuity in Stravinsky’s music. Retrieved from

Joseph, C. (2002). Stravinsky and Balanchine : A journey of Invention. Retrieved from
Chapter in a Book
(Essay in a Festschrift)
AuthorLastName, F.N. (Year). Article title. IN F.N. EditorLastName (Ed.) Title of book.(pp.#). Location:Publisher.

Banes, S. (1999). Firebird and the idea of Russianness.  In L. Garafola, L. & N. Baer (Eds.) The Ballets Russes and its world. (pp. 117-134). New Haven: Yale University Press, 1999.

In-text citations

The following table may be used as a guide for common in-text citations.  

Type of citation What is in-text
The entire work (Joseph, 2001)
A specific page (Joseph, 2001, p. 33)
Author's name included in text "Joseph (2001, p. 33) states that.."
An online article with no page numbers (Bob, 2010, para. 6)
Citing multiple authors See resources below

The following resources provide additional information regarding citing multiple authors and other unique situations:

What is a DOI?

Some library databases, such as the Electronic Journal Center, list a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) for individual articles. A DOI is a unique identifying number for an article. In the database record for an article, you will see an element that looks like this, which you should include at the end of your APA reference, preceded by "":

Other databases include what might be called a static or stable URL.  You may use this URL if the DOI is not provided.    If neither a DOI or a stable URL are provided, provide the URL for  journal's home page or the database that provided the full-text (e.g. 

APA Style Manual