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Citation Styles for Music: Sound Recordings

Style examples of bibliographic citations in music for APA, MLA & Chicago Manuals of Style.

Style Manuals

As of 2020, we now have online access to the Chicago Manual of Style, which should answer all your questions about citing sources properly in Chicago Style.

Image of cover of Chicago Manual, 17th edition

Humanities Style

Entire recording Note: ¹Composer First Name Last, Name of musical work, PerformerFirstName Last, Record label (followed by)
CD identifying number, format, Year.

Note: Igor Stravinsky, L'oiseau de feu, Apollon musagète, Detroit Symphony Orchestra, conducted by Antal Dorati, London Records 430 740-2, 1992, compact disc.

Bibliography:  Composer Last Name, First.  Name of musical work, PerformerFirstName Last.  Record label (followed by) CD identifying number. Format. Year.

Bibliography:Stravinsky, Igor. L'oiseau de feu, Apollon musagète. Detroit Symphony Orchestra, conducted by Antal Dorati. London Records 430 740-2. 1992, compact disc.

Part of recording Note: ¹Igor Stravinsky, Firebird ballet suite (1945) revised version, from Stravinsky conducts Stravinsky, Columbia Symphony Orchestra, Sony Classical SX9K 64136, 1999, compact disc.

Bibliography: Stravinsky, Igor. Firebird ballet suite (1945) revised version. From Stravinsky conducts Stravinsky. Columbia Symphony Orchestra. Sony Classical SX9K 64136. 1999, compact disc.
MP3 download Note:   ¹Composer First Name Last, Name of musical work, PerformerFirstName Last, Record label, format, Year.

Note: ¹Igor Stravinsky, Firebird Suite (1945), Columbia Symphony Orchestra, MP3, 1967.

Bibliography:  Composer Last Name, First. Name of work. Performer FirstName Last.  Record label. Format. Year.

Bibliography: Igor Stravinsky, Igor. Firebird Suite (1945). Columbia Symphony Orchestra. MP3, 1967.
Streaming audio service Note: ¹Igor Stravinsky, Firebird (original version), from Sacre du printemps, Petrushka, The Firebird, Apollo (1947 revision), EMI Classics, streaming audio, 1987, accessed March 5, 2013 http://bwcoll.naxosmusiclibrary.com/streamw.asp?ver=2.0&s=76779%2Fohiolinkbwc07%2F1535230.

Bibliography: Stravinsky, Igor. Firebird (original version). From Sacre du printemps, Petrushka, The Firebird, Apollo (1947 revision). EMI Classics. Streaming audio, 1987. Accessed March 5, 2013 http://bwcoll.naxosmusiclibrary.com/streamw.asp?ver=2.0&s=76779%2Fohiolinkbwc07%2F1535230.
YouTube website clip Note: ¹"Igor Stravinsky conducts The Firebird," [n.d.], video clip, YouTube, Accessed March 5, 2013 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mUwdyN27TWI.

The abbreviation "n.d." means no date.  Include a date if it is provided. 

Bibliography: "Igor Stravinsky conducts The Firebird." [n.d.]. Video clip. YouTube Accessed March 5, 2013 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mUwdyN27TWI.
Liner Notes Note: ¹Igor Stravinsky, Liner Notes to The Firebird, from Three Favorite Ballets, Columbia Symphony Orchestra, Columbia M3S 705, LP record, 1964.

Bibliography: Stravinsky, Igor. Liner Notes to The Firebird. From Three Favorite Ballets. Columbia Symphony Orchestra. Columbia M3S 705. LP record, 1964.

Humanities Style

Entire Book: Print version Footnote/Endnote:

First reference in paper without a bibliography
Note: ¹Author First Name Last, Title of Book (City:  Publisher, Year), page numbers.
   ¹Charles M. Joseph, Stravinsky Inside and Out (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2001), 33.

First note citation in a paper with full bibliography or subsequent citations with or without:
   ²Joseph, Stravinsky Inside and Out, 33.

Bibliography:  Author Last Name, First.  Title of Book. City: Publisher, Year.
   Joseph, Charles M. Stravinsky Inside and Out. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2001.
Entire Book: Edited Note: ¹Ethan Haimo and Paul Johnson, Eds. Stravinsky Retrospectives (Lincoln, NE: Univ. of Nebraska Press, 1987), 87.

Bibliography: Haimo, Ethan and Paul Johnson. Eds. Stravinsky Retrospectives. Lincoln, NE: Univ. of Nebraska Press, 1987.
E-book Note: ¹Gretchen Horlacher, Building Blocks: Repetition and Continuity in Stravinsky’s Music (New York: Oxford University Press, 2001),  accessed February 25, 2013 http://rave.ohiolink.edu/ebooks/ebc/9780195370867.

Bibliography: Horlacher, Gretchen, Building Blocks: Repetition and Continuity in Stravinsky’s Music. New York: Oxford University Press, 2001. http://rave.ohiolink.edu/ebooks/ebc/9780195370867. Also available in print.

Chapter in a Book

(Essay in a Festschrift)

Note: ¹Sally Banes, "Firebird and the idea of Russianness," in The Ballets Russes and its World, eds. Lynn Garafola and Nancy Baer (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1999), 130. 

Bibliography: Banes, Sally. "Firebird and the idea of Russianness."  In The Ballets Russes and its World. Edited by Lynn Garafola and Nancy Baer, 117-134. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1999.